Aquaculture is the farming of fish, crustaceans, mollusc's, aquatic plants, algae, and other aquatic organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Aquaculture farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc.


Types of aquaculture include:

Fish Farming

Shrimp Farming

Oyster Farming


Alga-culture (such as seaweed farming)

Cultivation of Ornamental Fish.


Aquaculture or Aqua-farming

Animal welfare

As with the farming of terrestrial animals, social attitudes influence the need for humane practices and regulations in farmed marine animals. Under the guidelines advised by the Farm Animal Welfare Council good animal welfare means both fitness and a sense of wellbeing in the animal's physical and mental state.


This can be defined by the Five Freedoms:

Freedom from hunger & thirst

Freedom from discomfort

Freedom from pain, disease, or injury

Freedom to express normal behavior

Freedom from fear and distress



Some 16 countries now use geothermal energy for aquaculture, including China, Israel, and the United States. In California, for example, 15 fish farms produce tilapia, bass, and catfish with warm water from underground. This warmer water enables fish to grow all year round and mature more quickly. Collectively these California farms produce 4.5 million kilograms of fish each year.


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